APA (American Psychological Association) Style originated in 1929, when a group of psychologists, anthropologists, and business managers convened and sought to establish a simple set of procedures, or style rules, that would codify the many components of scientific writing to increase the ease of reading comprehension. Today APA is mostly used in the social and applied sciences, psychology, and education disciplines.
Structure: Last, F. M. (Year Published) Book. City, State: Publisher.
Example: James, H. (1937). The ambassadors. New York, NY: Scribner.
Format: Last, F. M. (Year Published). Book. Retrieved from URL
Example: Morem, S. (2005). 101 tips for graduates. Retrieved from http://www.infobasepublishing.com
Structure: Last, F. M., & Last, F. M. (Year Published). Article title. Journal Name, Volume(Issue), pp. Pages.
Example: Jacoby, W. G. (1994). Public attitudes toward government spending. American Journal of Political Science, 38(2), 336-361.
Journal from Online Database
Format: Last, F. M. (Year Published). Article title. Journal Name, Volume(Issue), pp. Page(s). Retrieved from URL
Example: Jacoby, W. G. (1994). Public attitudes toward government spending. American Journal of Political Science, 38(2), 336-361. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.
Personal communications include unpublished interviews, letters, emails, phone calls, etc.
In APA Style, personal communications are cited within the text ONLY. They do not appear in the reference list.
Your in-text citation should include initials and last name of the person you interviewed or communicated with as well as the month, day, and year of your communication.
Format: (F. M. Lastname, personal communication, Month date, Year)
Example 1: A. S. Wong (personal communication, January 10, 2019) stated that oranges make her feel nostalgic.
Example 2: "Students should eat more oranges," (G. L. Hernandez, personal communication, October 28, 2019).
Structure: Last, F. M. (Year, Month Date Published). Article title. Retrieved from URL
Example: Satalkar, B. (2010, July 15). Water aerobics. Retrieved from http://www.buzzle.com
Important note regarding APA citations when citing online articles:
APA style does not distinguish between articles accessed through a database and articles accessed via the Web. The exact citation formation will depend on whether the article has a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) available.
Example - Journal Article with DOI:
Example - Journal Article without DOI:
These samples courtesy of Pellissippi State Community College.
Electronic Reference / Credo Example: