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MLA Citation Guide (MLA 8th Edition): Interviews and Emails (Personal Communications)

Formatting

Note: For your Works Cited list, all citations should be double spaced and have a hanging indent.

A "hanging indent" means that each subsequent line after the first line of your citation should be indented by 0.5 inches.

When Is personal communication (in person, emails, and telephone) used In citation?

The category "Personal Communications" is used in situations where you are taking information from a source such as an email thread or an interview you conducted with someone else. In this case the work isn't published anywhere, someone else couldn't find and read the full interview or email on their own.

Sometimes you may find interviews with people in journals, magazines, newspapers, websites, etc. In those cases don't use the "Personal Communications" category. Instead, cite them according to where you found the information.

For example, an interview in a magazine would be cited like a magazine article. That way anyone reading your assignment could easily track down the interview for themselves by finding the same magazine article.

Personal Interview (In Person)

Last Name of Person Who Was Interviewed, First Name. Description of Interview. Day Month Year of interview. Personal Interview.

Works Cited List Example

 Myers, Elizabeth. The Dangers of Violence in the Media. 12 Mar. 2016. Personal Interview.

In-Text Citation Example

 (Last Name of Person Who Was Interviewed)

 Example: (Myers)

 Note: If the name of the person who was interviewed is mentioned in the sentence leading into the quote or paraphrased content, you do not need to repeat it in the in-text citation:

 Myers explained that "media violence is dangerous because it has been eroticized."

Email Interview

Last Name of Person Who Was Interviewed, First Name. "Subject Line of Email." Received by Name of Person Who Received Email. Day Month Year of Email. Email Interview.

Works Cited List Example

 Smith, Paula. "Re: Food and Family." Received by Joseph Tan. 20 May 2016. Email Interview.

  Note: The words Email Interview are added to the citation to specify that it is an interview.

In-Text Citation Example

 (Last Name of Person Who Was Interviewed)

 Example: (Smith)

  Note:If the name of the person who was interviewed is mentioned in the sentence leading into the quote or paraphrased content, you do not need to repeat it in the in-text citation:

 Smith asserted that food builds relationships because of a cultural appreciation inherent in enjoying a meal with family.

Telephone Interview

Last Name of Person Who Was Interviewed, First Name. Description of Interview. Day Month Year of interview. Telephone Interview.

 

 Ball, William. Best Practices for the Care of Hospital Patients. 30 Jan. 2016. Telephone Interview.

In-Text Citation Example

 (Last Name of Person Who Was Interviewed)

 Example: (Ball)

  Note:If the name of the person who was interviewed is mentioned in the sentence leading into the quote or paraphrased content, you do not need to repeat it in the in-text citation:

 Ball state that "infections are often contracted while patients are recovering in the hospital."

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